Keeping It Together: Cannabinoid Receptors Found In Connective Tissue Regions

Cannabinoid receptors are known to be located all throughout the body. Although most abundant in the central and peripheral nervous system and in immune system cells, cannabinoid receptors are also thought to reside in other types of tissues. However, due to the number of possible locations and the number of experiments necessary to establish localization of those receptors, new areas are still being discovered more than two decades after the discovery of the receptors themselves. Why do we care? If we are interested in the medicinal effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, research focusing on the actual effects of cannabinoids and inhibitors may seem more to the point. Regardless of the localization of the receptors, the bottom line is whether the endocannabinoid system can or cannot be a pharmaceutical target for a given medical condition. This assumes that we already know the conditions we are seeking to cure or treat. Building a functional map of the distribution of receptors throughout the body, while time and labor-intensive, will also likely reveal new conditions that may be associated or even be a direct result of endocannabinoid system operation. This year, a research group from the University of Padua in Italy decided to use samples of myofascial tissue to test for the presence of endocannabinoid receptors. Myofascial tissue is essentially an organic mesh of collagen that has a great strength while at the same time is highly flexible. This type of tissue is employed all throughout the body to keep organs compartmentalized as well…

Treating ADHD with Cannabinoids

Chances are that you or someone you know has been diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurological conditions as well as one of the most controversial due to the difficulty of treatment and diagnosis. New research has begun to suggest that the body’s cannabinoid system, specifically cannabinoid agonists like those found in cannabis, may play a role in treatment. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which is widely used as a diagnosis guide for doctors, ADHD is identified by a patient with measured trouble with mental functions that leads to inattention and hyperactivity. Unfortunately, what constitutes ADHD is therefore automatically open to a wide interpretation; at this point in time, our model of “attention” itself is incomplete. That’s not to say we don’t have some idea of the main chemicals that regulate consciousness. Norepinephrine is most responsible for vigilant concentration in the brain, and dopamine is most responsible for cognitive alertness. Moreover, many individuals with ADHD have thinner brain tissue in certain areas that regulate impulsivity. However, as research continues, the medical community is split over whether ADHD is even one illness. Many have proposed that the attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms stem from two different sources and as a result require different solutions. However, what makes ADHD treatment most controversial is the use of stimulants for treatment. Ritalin was the first major drug to be prescribed for ADHD, but second and third-generation stimulants with longer effects and less tolerance,…

Vaporization Part II

This is the second article in a multi-part series about vaporizing cannabis. The first article focused on the way vaporizers work, the health benefits of vaporizing, and the viability of vaporizers in delivering medical cannabis. This article will look beyond just the health differences between vapor inhalation and smoke inhalation, and will focus more on the substantial qualitative health differences in the experience between vaporizing and smoking. As it happens, not only are fewer toxins released during vaporizing, there is also a different profile of terpenoids, cannabinoids, and flavonoids that are released as well. Although most of these molecules are not independently psychoactive, they are capable of moderating how THC is metabolized, as well as providing distinctively different sensations and qualities to the medication .This is what may account for the diverse views of medical cannabis patients on the subject of vaporizing, since the respiratory health benefits are well established. Before getting into the specifics of what chemicals are affected and what changes are brought about, we’ll start with a quick review of how chemicals are released into the air during a vaporization or smoking session. In a vaporization reaction, chemicals are essentially changing from one state to another, similar to the way water vaporizes when placed on a stove. Although the temperature increase may cause chemical changes to the atoms before they are vaporized (such as the de-carboxylation required for the body to metabolize THC) the molecules are essentially changing phase. There is no flame because the chemical bonds…

To Vape or Not To Vape

Although cannabis itself is not harmful to health, method of administration can be detrimental to lung function. Pulmonary (lung and breathing) troubles are well-documented side effects, with daily smokers having decreased lung capacity, coughing, and sinus problems exacerbated by frequent smoke inhalation. This would be true of any combusting plant matter inhaled directly due to carbon monoxide, but cannabis plant material can also contain tars and produce other noxious substances when burned. Increasingly doctors are recommending vaporizer use to daily or frequent cannabis users to decrease harmful side-effects of smoking while maintaining potency and ease of dosing. This will be the first article in a series of articles about vaporizing, and will focus on the benefits and disadvantages of vaporizing. What is a vaporizer? A vaporizer is a device that heats cannabis to temperatures that release cannabinoids into air (vaporization). This vapor is then inhaled, without any smoke or combusted plant matter. The first vaporizers were very crude, home-built devices that used heating elements like soldering irons to directly heat the cannabis matter. However, over time, as companies began to emerge to serve demand from users wanting a better vaporizing experience, more complex designs emerged. Although many designs still use direct heat conduction, the more expensive but more consistent vapor design relies on using convection heating. In this method, air is heated first and then driven through the cannabis matter, assuring a more even temperature distribution as well as preventing the matter from getting too hot and partially combusting on…