CBD, Alcohol Consumption + Relapse

Chances are, every person reading this article knows at least one person suffering from alcohol addiction or is suffering himself/herself. That’s because alcoholism is actually very common; we have over 3 million cases in the US alone each year! So far this addiction has resisted understanding and a consistent treatment option. As doctors currently understand, alcoholism stems from a combination of unfortunate genetic traits and the readily available, socially-approved nature of alcohol. Additionally, aside from the psychological causes that may have triggered addiction in the first place, recovering alcoholics also face real health consequences as a result of immediately ending consumption. CBD, on the other hand, as we’ve discussed frequently, exerts a calming influence (both psychologically and in terms of reducing cellular inflammation). While there are over 51 possible mechanisms of action of CBD, and any combination of these may be responsible for any given set of effects, CBD’s history as an anti-psychotic is well-documented and would be difficult to debate seriously from a medical perspective. As we’ve mentioned before, CBD, in fact, counter-acts many of the effects of THC, meaning that the racier, trippier strains of cannabis often contain low amounts of CBD or THC only. Given that current alcoholism treatments have a relapse rate of over 70% in the first year, recovery is truly difficult. Many successful approaches are also faith-based, which leaves some individuals in a predicament, and recovering addicts often report several serious attempts at becoming sober before success. Many others die from cumulative alcohol poisoning…

CBD, Fear And Memory

In previous entries, we’ve covered how cannabis might affect memory and memory consolidation. The basic idea has been that cannabis might prevent the formation of traumatic memory. However, until now, we haven’t seen any research dealing specifically with fear. The connection between memory and fear may not be immediately obvious to readers; however, as it turns out, they’re very much related. A state of fear engages previous memories of threat as well as requires recall of escape/defense strategy. Given cannabidiol’s (CBD’s) success in early studies as an anti-psychotic, researchers might hypothesize a beneficial effect of CBD administration on fear response. However, only recently have Brazilian researchers carried out such an experiment, using rodents and varying doses of CBD. In most animal models of fear, researchers apply a threatening environmental stimulus. Of course, none of these might be more threatening than the mice’ natural predator, a boa constrictor snake! Researchers therefore forced confrontations between mice and snakes using an “arena” or plastic container, where they could record movement information. In one corner of the container, researchers placed a protective burrow. This burrow has two sides and a small opening on either, allowing mice to run in one side to escape the snake, and run out the other side once the snake begins to enter the burrow. Because this is an effective escape, a pro-survival strategy of mice would be to run away from the snake, toward the burrow. This is called “oriented escape”. However, in some cases, the mice become too…

Debunking Previous CBD -> THC Conversion Research

Earlier in the year, we published an article about CBD converting to small amounts of THC in the stomach, based on a 2016 study lead by John Merrick, “Identification of Psychoactive Degradants of Cannabidiol in Simulated Gastric and Physiological Fluid”. This study found that cannabidiol, when immersed in a bath of acid similar to stomach acid, produces a significant amount of THC in the same acid bath. Researchers hypothesized that this was because THC and CBD, despite having wildly different effects, actually start as the same pre-cursor chemical (cannabigerolic acid). Different enzymes then convert this chemical to destination chemicals THC or CBD, depending on plant genetics and environmental factors. However, strangely enough, in the year following the study, we have not seen the results confirmed. Were this a less significant finding, we might expect such delay. However, the finding is especially relevant to cannabis/cannabinoid research because it undermines CBD as a therapeutic drug. If part of the drug is converting to THC in stomach acid, this effect might preclude its use in situations where THC must be avoided. However, despite the lack of confirmation, outstanding questions loom, such as, if edible CBD converts to THC, why are CBD users not noticing psychedelic effects? How did such a large, obvious conclusion fly below the radar? Apparently because it’s false. As far as we can determine at this point in time, there is no reason to believe CBD converts to THC in the human stomach. Spearheading the commentary refuting this article, Franjo…

Anti-Viral Activity in CBD?

Chances are every person reading this has some connection to hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, which can lead to liver failure and death. Unfortunately, there are many potential causes of hepatitis. Excessive alcohol consumption can cause inflammation, as well as autoimmune disease, in which the body mistakenly attacks its own liver cells. Currently five major viruses (which happen to be unrelated) have been identified to cause liver failure, referred to as Hepatitis A through Hepatitis E. Due to the contagious and dangerous nature of these diseases, US schools often require Hepatitis A and B vaccinations. Hepatitis A can spread easily through contaminated food and Hepatitis B (HBV) through blood and other bodily fluids. These vaccinations are simple, cheap, and life saving. Unfortunately, Hepatitis C (HCV) lacks a vaccine. Despite a common prevalence and upwards of 200,000 known cases in the US a year, the disease is difficult to ward off. We use the word “known” specifically because thousands of other people may also be infected but show no symptoms while spreading the disease. There is, fortunately, finally a cure to Hepatitis C. A once-a-day pill taken for several months can eradicate Hepatitis C from a sick patient’s body. Sadly, the cost for that treatment ranges from $55,000 to $150,000! As a result, government health care providers can’t shoulder the burden and only tend to allow coverage for end-stage liver failure. In other words, after all the damage is done, and the patient is dying, they are finally eligible for…

Soothing the Stomach: Controlling Intestinal Inflammation with Cannabis

As readers know, we’ve written about IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) multiple times, specifically in response to its high prevalence. IBS occurs more than 200,000 times in the US each year. Partially spurred by processed foods, IBS is naturally more common in developed nations and as readers can guess, continues to grow in incidence. By the numbers, many of our readers will identify with the intestinal pain, gas, diarrhea, and constipation brought on by IBS. Unfortunately, the cause of IBS is not well understood, and likewise, no single cure exists; treatment can sometimes ease symptoms. As we’ve reported previously, cannabidiol (CBD), one of the most discussed molecules produced by the cannabis plant, has shown promise at healing inflammation and restoring normal intestinal motility, which is the ability of the intestine to move along/process food. Most studies have utilized rodents with CBD administered via body cavity injections. Currently researchers are seeking to establish whether these results can be duplicated in human subjects, as supported by anecdotal evidence. However, duplication poses an obvious practical issue in humans due to method of administration. Injecting CBD into the stomach each day? Yikes. Toward the goal of transitioning studies to humans, the next logical step is to test oral CBD on mice. Should this method prove to be as effective as injection, researchers will possess a stronger indication of oral CBD as a plausible treatment of IBS in humans. One research group, from Naples, Italy, set out to conduct such research. However, rather than only test…

Emerging Neuroprotective Agents from Cannabinoids

Every component of the body is inherently related. When one organ fails or declines in health, another organ will follow. Liver failure, for instance, poses a dire health risk on it’s own. However, beyond the immediate, life-threatening aspects of toxins not being filtered out of the blood, damage to the brain is another physiological consequence. Toxins cause free radicals to build up, which leads to cell stress and eventual neuron death. This cellular damage translates into loss of memory, general confusion, and cognitive damage, which poses a serious impairment to quality of life. Unfortunately, liver issues cannot always be immediately solved, if they can be solved at all. In the meantime, this condition, called Hepatic Encephalopathy, should at least be minimized or ideally entirely prevented, to ensure patients mental health. Scientists have been searching for neuroprotective agents, or drugs that might enable cells to avoid damage caused by buildup of free radicals. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a known neuroprotector, meaning that the application of CBD decreases the amount of cell damage and death brought on by toxins. Researchers do not currently understand exactly how these neuroprotective effects are achieved. However, we do know that the normal cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are not involved. When receptor antagonists are applied, and those receptors are shut off, neuroprotective effects are still observed. Case closed, right? Why not use CBD as a neuroprotective medicine for serious health situations such as Hepatic Encephalopathy? This may indeed be one of the best options in present day,…

Sourcing CBD

Have you ever wondered where concentrated CBD comes from? In the United States, industrial hemp is now permitted under special circumstances, thanks to a 2014 U.S. Farm Bill which approves special grow programs. States like California and Colorado offer a legal pathway to growing smaller batches of medical cannabis for CBD production. CBD can also be legally produced synthetically without the plant at all with appropriate DEA approval. All three of these pathways represent avenues for legal CBD production in the United States. Assuming that the goal is to produce 100% pure CBD, these methods are all equivalent; the source has no impact. However, when CBD is initially extracted from a whole plant, terpenes and cannabinoids are extracted alongside and remain in the product. The greater the quality of the source plant, the greater and richer these terpenes and cannabinoids are, whereas synthetic CBD contains no additional molecules. Due to current cannabinoid research indicating the likelihood of synergistic effects of cannabinoids, we at Cornerstone feel that whole plant, high quality cannabis preparations of CBD are likely more effective medical solutions than pure or synthetic CBD. If it were purely medicinal cannabis advocates arguing for the effectiveness of whole-plant derived CBD preparations, we might simply dismiss this notion as financial bias. Of course medical cannabis dispensaries have incentive to advocate for medical cannabis-based products! Of course we’d rather see the CBD market in the hands of local providers vs. industrial giants. That is our bias. However, ultimately the conversation about the…

CBD As A Motivator

In cannabis culture, THC tends to steal the limelight. Many breeders select for strains with higher percentages of THC, due to its psychoactive effect. However, as far as therapeutic applications go, CBD (cannabidiol) seems to be the real leader, calming both joint inflammation and spasticity in epileptic patients. The idea that CBD could also be an anti-depressant or motivator has been mostly overlooked, largely due to the fact that unlike THC, CBD is not as apparently psychoactive. As more evidence comes to light, we are realizing that CBD may in fact have substantial anti-depressive properties while at the same time operating without the risks and negative side effects of current pharmaceutical options. Sensing potential here, researchers at the Geha Mental Health Center in Israel set out to increase findings on the potential of CBD as a behavioral motivator. To do this, they began by selecting Wistar-Kyoto mice as research subjects. While we normally don’t go into different types of research mice on the Cornerstone blog, in this case, some background is necessary. Wistar-Kyoto mice have genetics that produce behaviors that duplicate many of the classic symptoms of depression found in humans. For instance, these mice are hyper-reactive to stress. Additionally these mice illustrate increased immobility, greater anxiety, and greater amounts of passive coping (such as burying themselves as a defense). This makes these mice a great model of depression and for a research team looking to test potential anti-depressants, a great answer. To begin, researchers measured individual baseline levels of…

CBD Salve May Have More Uses than Originally Thought

Topical cannabis preparations have been around since the dawn of civilization and have experienced a resurgence in popularity along with medical cannabis. Usually these salves and creams, which are rubbed into the skin directly, are intended to treat conditions directly below the skin. For instance, cannabis-derived salves are popular among those suffering from arthritis, who apply the cream directly to affected areas to reduce swelling. This method of administration is believed to be more effective for arthritis than oral administration and also avoids many of the otherwise psychoactive effects of cannabis. Of course, manufacturers of cannabis creams and salves are often liberal with claims of conditions the cream can help. For instance, some websites discuss the use of cannabis-derived cream to completely eradicate cancerous tumors or genetic diseases. At this stage of cannabis and cannabinoid research, many unknowns remain, so technically it is possible these claims are true. However, knowing what we know at this point in time, this is probably utter nonsense. To be fair, these manufacturers may have witnessed healing that happened in tandem to salve application and may honestly believe their claims. However, there is a stark difference between several personal observations about using a salve and the extensive laboratory testing needed to scientifically support those claims. Regardless, the question remains: what can cannabinoid salves and creams be used for? As it turns out, there may be an accidental shred of truth to over-zealous claims that the salve can solve more than topical issues. Recently, the DARU…

Facts and Myths of Schizophrenia and Cannabis

Critics of medical cannabis use often bring up the association between cannabis use and mental illness. In this context, the implication is almost always that cannabis use is unsafe and can exacerbate or initiate psychotic symptoms in both healthy and afflicted individuals. Yikes. While some of these claims are accurate, they are also incredibly misleading to the discussion about medical cannabis’ relationship with psychotic disorders. For example, it would be entirely factual to say that automobiles are involved in thousands of deaths each year. It would also be entirely factual to say that without automobile usage, vehicular death would not occur! This is clearly a very silly way to look at the situation: Automobiles transport food and medicines, and some automobiles like ambulances, literally save lives by allowing people to be rushed to proper medical facilities. The safety of a vehicle inevitably depends on who is driving it and what rules and road systems they are subject to. In this case it would be difficult to successfully argue that refusing to ride in an automobile is a healthy decision in modern society. Stating the facts without stating the whole context can be completely misleading. Likewise, the relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia cannot be stated in one sentence. Both chemical and natural psychedelic substances, like cannabis, are well documented to trigger cases of mental illness. By transporting users to different mental states, these drugs can set off acute and long-term psychotic episodes, so any responsible medical doctor should advise patients with…