Anti-Viral Activity in CBD?

Chances are every person reading this has some connection to hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, which can lead to liver failure and death. Unfortunately, there are many potential causes of hepatitis. Excessive alcohol consumption can cause inflammation, as well as autoimmune disease, in which the body mistakenly attacks its own liver cells. Currently five major viruses (which happen to be unrelated) have been identified to cause liver failure, referred to as Hepatitis A through Hepatitis E. Due to the contagious and dangerous nature of these diseases, US schools often require Hepatitis A and B vaccinations. Hepatitis A can spread easily through contaminated food and Hepatitis B (HBV) through blood and other bodily fluids. These vaccinations are simple, cheap, and life saving. Unfortunately, Hepatitis C (HCV) lacks a vaccine. Despite a common prevalence and upwards of 200,000 known cases in the US a year, the disease is difficult to ward off. We use the word “known” specifically because thousands of other people may also be infected but show no symptoms while spreading the disease. There is, fortunately, finally a cure to Hepatitis C. A once-a-day pill taken for several months can eradicate Hepatitis C from a sick patient’s body. Sadly, the cost for that treatment ranges from $55,000 to $150,000! As a result, government health care providers can’t shoulder the burden and only tend to allow coverage for end-stage liver failure. In other words, after all the damage is done, and the patient is dying, they are finally eligible for…

Cannabigerol, Making Food Appetizing for Cancer Patients

For all of the states that initially passed medical cannabis legislation, cancer was not only an approved condition but also a major data point supporting such legislation. Specifically, cancer patients, forced to undergo exhausting chemotherapy treatments, lose appetite. This drastic, prolonged loss of appetite, similar to anorexia, decreases body weight and in turn, decreases overall health. Cannabis has long been observed to increase appetite in humans (we’ve written several Cornerstone blog posts on the “munchies”), with the most active ingredient identified as THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Unfortunately, not all patients enjoy or can tolerate this psychoactivity. Originally, this posed a serious downside to treatment with cannabis. However, with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, researchers realized that the effects of THC might be achieved, without psychoactivity, via other cannabinoids. Additionally, research has confirmed that cannabis containing no THC can still restore appetite. In line with this thinking, one paper, published last month in the medical research journal, Psychopharmacology, tested a molecule known as cannabigerol (CBG) on rodents to observe changes in feeding patterns. Readers may be surprised to learn that cannabigerol, unlike many other cannabinoids, found mostly in the resin of medicinal plants, exists in higher concentrations in plain hemp. Most medicinal strains, in fact, have concentrations lower than 1%. CBG also binds to the CB1 receptor at a much lower rate than THC and may even serve to temporarily disable the receptor. However, CBG has also been shown to be a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and an alpha2-adrenergic…

Soothing the Stomach: Controlling Intestinal Inflammation with Cannabis

As readers know, we’ve written about IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) multiple times, specifically in response to its high prevalence. IBS occurs more than 200,000 times in the US each year. Partially spurred by processed foods, IBS is naturally more common in developed nations and as readers can guess, continues to grow in incidence. By the numbers, many of our readers will identify with the intestinal pain, gas, diarrhea, and constipation brought on by IBS. Unfortunately, the cause of IBS is not well understood, and likewise, no single cure exists; treatment can sometimes ease symptoms. As we’ve reported previously, cannabidiol (CBD), one of the most discussed molecules produced by the cannabis plant, has shown promise at healing inflammation and restoring normal intestinal motility, which is the ability of the intestine to move along/process food. Most studies have utilized rodents with CBD administered via body cavity injections. Currently researchers are seeking to establish whether these results can be duplicated in human subjects, as supported by anecdotal evidence. However, duplication poses an obvious practical issue in humans due to method of administration. Injecting CBD into the stomach each day? Yikes. Toward the goal of transitioning studies to humans, the next logical step is to test oral CBD on mice. Should this method prove to be as effective as injection, researchers will possess a stronger indication of oral CBD as a plausible treatment of IBS in humans. One research group, from Naples, Italy, set out to conduct such research. However, rather than only test…

Cannabis Use and Executive Function

In pop culture, perhaps because cannabis is often placed in the same group as other recreational substances, stoners get a bad rap for being slow, under-performers. In the now-famous film Fast Times at Ridgemont High, one of the main characters, Jeff Spicoli, typifies the surfer/stoner as perceived by a large swath of society; he’s essentially an airhead. This type of media portrayal has given the population at large the idea that cannabis is not beneficial for long term mental health. To this degree, almost every medical cannabis user may experience the concern of a well-meaning friend who asks, “That can’t be good for you over time, right?” This is a good question for someone first exposed to any new medicine. Patients should be aware that even the most documented pharmaceutical medicines can be dangerous and misprescribed. As a result, everyone should be vigilant about the effect of taking a new medicine. However, as we’ve covered in previous articles, we’re seeing no long-term irreversible effects statistically. The idea that cannabis is somehow destroying the machinery of the brain long-term is patently false. A more plausible argument might be that cannabis re-directs mental traffic. Sadly, anti-cannabis proponents have latched onto studies that give incomplete results. For instance, it may be true in one test that cannabis users on average perform more slowly. Researchers may then go on to find that when the same test population is weeded of heroin users, the negative effects disappear and all groups perform equally. In other words,…

Update on MS Treatment: The P13K Pathway

We’re living in exciting times; human knowledge of cannabis, cannabinoids, and the endocannabinoid system is surging. If the sheer number of medical journal papers related to cannabis/cannabinoids is any indication, more researchers than ever are choosing to invest their lives and energy in exploring the subject. This, in turn, has allowed individual threads of research to unfold much more rapidly. As would be expected, the findings of one seemingly unrelated study often inform and develop the findings and questions of another. One such thread is that of MS (multiple sclerosis) treatment. We’ve written previously about the concept of using cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system to treat MS (multiple sclerosis). For readers seeking a full recap, check out the links below: https://cornerstonecollective.com/real-life-cannabinoid-treatment-multiple-sclerosis/ https://cornerstonecollective.com/how-cannabinoids-can-beneficially-interact-with-neurodegenerative-disorder-treatment/ For readers that would rather a digested version, the basic idea is that the endocannabinoid system can control and alleviate inflammation by reducing the number of inflammatory molecules produced by the body. MS, in particular, is a disease in which the body’s immune system becomes confused and starts destroying healthy cells in the brain. If the brain can be pictured as a giant mass of neurons wired together in a network, MS destroys the outer lining of those wires, causing electrical signals to be released improperly or not at all. This process, at the time being, is not reversible or curable but is capable of being slowed. Patients with MS can live long lives, albeit with increasing disability and discomfort. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoids, in particular…

Keeping It Together: Cannabinoid Receptors Found In Connective Tissue Regions

Cannabinoid receptors are known to be located all throughout the body. Although most abundant in the central and peripheral nervous system and in immune system cells, cannabinoid receptors are also thought to reside in other types of tissues. However, due to the number of possible locations and the number of experiments necessary to establish localization of those receptors, new areas are still being discovered more than two decades after the discovery of the receptors themselves. Why do we care? If we are interested in the medicinal effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, research focusing on the actual effects of cannabinoids and inhibitors may seem more to the point. Regardless of the localization of the receptors, the bottom line is whether the endocannabinoid system can or cannot be a pharmaceutical target for a given medical condition. This assumes that we already know the conditions we are seeking to cure or treat. Building a functional map of the distribution of receptors throughout the body, while time and labor-intensive, will also likely reveal new conditions that may be associated or even be a direct result of endocannabinoid system operation. This year, a research group from the University of Padua in Italy decided to use samples of myofascial tissue to test for the presence of endocannabinoid receptors. Myofascial tissue is essentially an organic mesh of collagen that has a great strength while at the same time is highly flexible. This type of tissue is employed all throughout the body to keep organs compartmentalized as well…

Is Inhaling Cannabis Bad for You?

As it stands, cannabis has proven beneficial to one's health in too many ways to list. The cannabinoids contained in cannabis exert their myriad of health effects in particularly gentle ways, and unlike most other pharmaceuticals, cannabis appears to have no toxic limit in healthy adults. Even so, frequent consumers of cannabis may wonder: is inhaling the smoke of anything, even cannabis, good for my lungs? Am I causing long-term damage similar to smoking cigarettes? The short answer: yes, you should avoid inhaling smoke or any burning material as much as possible. The lungs were not made to filter smoke continuously or really at all. For this reason, previous articles on the blog have discussed vaporizers and the importance of using non-combustive methods of consumption (edibles anyone?). Vaporizers not only improve taste of cannabis, but also virtually eliminate damage caused by smoking. Furthermore, vaporizers are generally able to glean a greater medicinal effect from a smaller amount of cannabis. Frequent users should find the financial investment a no-brainer. However, clever readers may also wonder: aside from the physical reality of inhaling burning material, what effects do cannabinoids actually have on the lungs? As it happens, cannabinoid research points to an overwhelmingly positive relationship between cannabinoids and lung health. In fact, while we are generally cautious of making strong statements, this is one area where we can be reasonably certain that the long-term effect of cannabis consumption is positive, at least from the properties inherent in cannabinoids themselves. A September article…

The Endocannabinoid System and Reproductive Health

Evolutionarily speaking, if the endocannabinoid system of receptors and ligands were not critical to human life, it would have disappeared early in the course of human development. If the system is not necessary, humans and mammals that genetically mutated to lack endocannabinoid receptors would have existed, and in fact, would have had better luck as a result of not wasting energy. Although we tend to forget, the body consumes energy by building receptors, producing enzymes, and creating natural endocannabinoids. This energy might otherwise be used for important functions such as repairing muscle or fortifying the immune system. Of course, a clever reader may ask, “What about the appendix? If what you’re saying is true, why hasn’t that disappeared?” Although the appendix no longer serves a function, it did at one point during human development. The appendix is like an old bridge that was once critical and is now unused. It is entirely possible that the endocannabinoid system once played a greater function, however, we’ve already confirmed multiple current functions and our understanding of its importance continues to grow. This month, we’re taking a look at the various ways in which the endocannabinoid system affects the human reproductive system. In the past, we’ve covered the interaction with estrogen and the female reproductive cycle. However, lately we’ve learned that sperm motility and production is associated with the endocannabinoid system as well. In the first area of interaction, cannabinoids affect hypothalamic-pituitary control of reproduction in the brain. In normal sex hormone production, gonadotropin-releasing-hormone…

Opioid Withdrawal Treatment: Finding New Roads

Opioids/opiates have provided significant and sometimes life-saving relief to countless patients. They remain some of the strongest painkillers available and can be especially helpful in rendering comfort in otherwise extremely painful terminal illnesses. Opioids work by activating opioid receptors located in the brain, which are densely located in emotion-controlling areas that process pain. Unfortunately, prolonged or extreme use of opioids can lead to dependence, or the body adjusting by limiting natural opioid production and therefore resulting in the body physiologically needing increasing amounts of external opioids to function properly. However, aside from practical issues, high doses of opioids can lead to respiratory failure, death, and other serious health consequences, which means that for all but terminally ill users, opioid withdrawal will eventually occur. Withdrawal is not only unpleasant physically and psychologically (depression, lack of appetite, diarrhea), but potentially life-threatening. In fact, withdrawal is so severe that it can sometimes prevent patients from ending opiate use, causing a downward spiral. As a result, modern doctors are cautious to prescribe opioids and usually seek to wean patients off opioids through slowly decreasing prescriptions. Perhaps more concerning though, aside from medical patients, roughly 4.3 million people in the US alone are currently non-medical users of narcotic pain relievers. Drugs like heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone, etc. are all opiate-based drugs that are frequently abused for the recreational high. Meanwhile, even drugs intended to wean opiate use, such as buprenorphine, are commonly sold and traded. To date, only compounds that directly activate opioid receptors have been…

Debunking Reefer Madness “Science”

Most of the Cornerstone blog articles we post are about the future and pending medical advances. However, today, we will instead take a quick look at the present, specifically at the national conversation around medical cannabis. As more states continue to legalize medical and recreational cannabis, the bulk of conversation centers on how to navigate this collective policy change to produce the greatest good and smallest harm for society as a whole. However, while 2016 has certainly been an outstanding year for medical cannabis and cannabinoid research, reefer madness is still alive and well, and opposition remains strong. For exhibit A, the report that is setting the internet abuzz, the University of Western Australia published a press release linking cannabis use to gene mutation. To quote the article: “‘Through our research we found that cancers and illnesses were likely caused by cell mutations resulting from cannabis properties having a chemical interaction with a person’s DNA,’ Associate Professor Stuart Reece said.” As if this isn’t scary enough, the article then suggests that these mutations are passed to offspring. Yikes. Following this line of thought, by consuming cannabis, individuals may inadvertently be giving their children cancer! Fortunately, cannabis science luminary Ethan Russo stepped in to clarify and debunk the report. In an interview for the East Bay Express, Ethan noted, “This report is based on a foundation of falsehoods. Cannabis is not mutagenic (productive of mutations in DNA)…Countless animal studies and human epidemiological studies support its relative safety in this regard.” Despite…